As scientific research advances, so do the methods for categorising drug compounds in terms of their toxicity and potency. The categorisation process is vital in ensuring the safety of laboratory workers and those involved in the handling and administration of drug compounds. In this article, we will explore the different categories of drug compounds, their characteristics and the necessary safety equipment for labs to handle them.
Understanding Laboratory Categorisation of Drug Compounds
Drug compounds are classified based on their toxicity and potency. Toxicity is assessed through various means, such as pre-clinical toxicological investigations, clinical trials, and observations of occupational exposure limits within the pharmaceutical industry.
Factors such as the mechanism of pharmacological action, therapeutic dose, spectrum and severity of side effects are also considered during the assessment process. Ultimately, drugs are placed into specific toxicity and potency categories, and a respective control band is assigned. The most widely accepted categorisation of drug compounds involves placing them into one of four categories:
- Low Toxicity
Drugs in this category have good warning properties associated with immediate effects such as smell or irritation. Typical occupational exposure limits for low-toxicity drugs are around 500ug/m3. Overexposure to low-toxicity drugs is typically treatable and unlikely to be chronic or severe.
- Intermediate Toxicity
Drugs in this category have lower occupational exposure limits, usually in the range of 10-500ug/m3, and may result in more severe effects. In some cases, sensitisation can occur, making future exposure to the substance more dangerous. Like low-toxicity drugs, the effects of intermediate-toxicity drugs are treatable and unlikely to be chronic.
Potent drugs have a pharmacological effect below 1mg/kg/day. Overexposure can cause delayed symptoms that can be experienced outside the laboratory environment, making diagnosis and treatment more difficult. These drugs can also be strong sensitisers and may cause irreversible acute and/or chronic effects. They can also be carcinogenic, mutagenic and have effects on the reproductive system.
- Highly Potent
Drugs in this category are the most toxic and/or potent and present the greatest containment challenges. Warning symptoms are not common, and the severity of the effects can be strong and irreversible. Specialised handling procedures are required for drugs in this category, as exposure to levels over 0.03ug/m3 is considered dangerous. Highly potent drugs are associated with a comparatively low therapeutic dose and are believed to present the potential for -genic effects.
Envirosafe Ireland’s Safety Equipment for Labs
When it comes to handling drug compounds of different toxicity levels, having the right laboratory equipment is crucial. Safety furniture & equipment should be selected based on the type and severity of the hazards associated with the drug compound.
Envirosafe Ireland provides a range of safety and containment solutions for laboratories of all sizes. Our experts can help you identify the appropriate equipment for your lab based on the toxicity of the drug compounds being handled. Contact us today to learn more about our products and services.